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Fish and Fisheries (General and Applied Ichthyology) Vol. II Modified Contents

Fish and Fisheries (General and Applied Ichthyology) Vol. II Modified Contents

Designed to be published in due course of time or made available to the concerned through appropriate channel

CHAPTER

1. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM [SKIN, GLANDS AND EXOSKELETON]

General structure of skin, Derivatives of skin, The integument (skin, glands and exoskeleton) in different groups of fishes, Diversity of scale structure and occurrence in Bony fishes, Importance of scales, Modifications of multicellular glands, Role of mucus, Barbels and flaps.

2. COLOURATION IN FISHES

General colour patterns due to habits and habitat, The common and uniform colouration, Lack of pigment or Albinism and transparency, Sources of colour, Chromatophores, Physiology of colour change, Significance of colouration.

3. ENDOSKELETON

Origin, Subdivisions of endoskeleton, General considerations about axial skeleton, Skull, Vertebral column, General considerations about appendicular skeleton, Paired fins and girdles, Median fins and their skeleton, Weberian Apparatus.

4. FINS

Types of fins (Median and Paired) and their modifications, Skeleton of median fins, Skeleton of paired fins, Origin and evolution of fins, Taxonomic importance of fins.

5. SWIMMING AND BUOYANCY

Swimming or active movements, Historical aspects, Body form and movement, The body musculature and swimming, Fins and locomotion, Jets of water from gill slits as forces for swimming, Swimming in terms of gaits, Speed and coefficient of velocity, Habitat properties, Propulsion systems and body forms, Role of skeleton in locomotion, Buoyancy.

6. NUTRITION

Food, Diversity in feeding habits, Feeding intensity index, Food selection index (Selection coefficient), Index of preponderance, Digestive system, Adaptations in different parts of alimentary canal (Mouth, Lips, Tongue, Dentition, Oesophagus, Stomach, Intestine, Pyloric caeca, Spiral valve, Cloaca and anus, Glands), Histology of gut, Physiology of digestion.

7. RESPIRATION

Gills or branchiae (Origin / development, Types of gills, cCmparative anatomy of respiratory system and mechanism of respiration), Physiology of respiration, Accessory respiratory organs, Air bladder.

8. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Blood, Heart (Origin, Comparative anatomy), Cardiac function (Excitation, Electrocardiogram, Cardiac output), Blood vessels (Origin of aortic arches), Comparative anatomy of arteries, Origin of veins, Comparative anatomy of venous system, Lymphatic system, Regulation of cardiovascular system.

9. UROGENITAL SYSTEM

Basic organization of Kidney system, Basic organization of Genital system, Comparative anatomy of Urogenital system, Types of kidneys in Bony fishes, Histology of kidney.

10. EXCRETION OSMOREGULATION

Nitrogenous excretion, Excretion vs Osmotic and Ionic regulation, Control of excretion and osmoregulation.

11. INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS [NERVOUS SYSTEM, SENSE ORGANS, ENDOCRINE SYSTEM]

Nervous system – Divisions of nervous system, The Meninges, Early development of Central Nervous System, Comparative anatomy of brain, Functional aspects of different parts of brain, The Spinal Cord, Peripheral nervous system (Spinal Nerves, Cranial Nerves, Autonomic Nervous System).
Sensory system – Cutaneous sense organs (Lateral line system, Electroreceptors, Touch receptors), Chemosensory organs, Statoaucaustic organ, Photoreceptive organ.

Endocrine System – Hormones, Endocrine glands in fishes (Pituitary, Thyroid, Ultimobranchial gland, Pancreas, Gastrointestinal mucosa, Corpuscles of Stannius, Adrenal Cromaffin tissue, Adrenal interregnal tissue, Sex glands, Pineal or Epiphysis, Urophysis or Caudal neurosecretory system, Thymus), Miscellaneous endocrine functions (Renin-Angiotensin system, Natriuretic Peptides), Mechanism of hormone action, Control of hormone action, Hormones and aquaculture, Pheromones.

12. REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

Modes of reproduction, Reproductive system (Testes, Ovary), Maturity and related aspects (Age and size at maturity, Reproductive cycle, Coefficient of maturity, Gonadosomatic Index, Fecundity), Characteristic of eggs (Types, Shape and size, Egg envelopes, Surfcae patterns), Secondary sexual characters (Structural differences, Claspers, Gonopodium, Priapium, Ovipositor), Breeding season, Factors responsible for breeding, Breeding habits, Courtship, Monogamy and Polygamy, Fertilization, Embryonic development in a Teleost fish (Cleavages, Blastula, Gastrulation, Organogenesis, Post-gastrulation changes, Hatching, Newly-hatched post-embryos, Larval development, Juvenile to adult, Factors affecting development), Viviparity (Development and viviparity in cartilaginous fishes, Viviparity in Bony fishes).

13. PARENTAL CARE

Evolution of Parental care in fishes (Darwin’s rule of male sexual selection, Cost and benefits of parental care), Parental care in different groups of fishes.

14. MIGRATION

Historical aspects, Homing and Migration (Forage fish, Highly migratory species), Number of migratory fishes, Migratory movements (Denatant and Contranatant movements, Drifting movements, Random locomotory movements, Oriented locomotory movements), Migratory patterns (Triangular pattern, Quadrangular pattern), Migration Cycle (Gametic migration, Alimental migration, Climatic migration).

Examples of migration – Anadromous migrations (Lampreys, Hilsa ilisha, The Trouts, The Pacific Salmon, The Atlantic Salmon, The Striped Bass), Catadromous migrations (Freshwater eels, European eel Anguilla anguilla, American eel Anguilla rostrata), Amphidromous migrations (Bull Shark Carcharhinus leucas, Milkfish Chanos chanos, Roaches Rutilus sp., Bombay duck Harpadon nehreus, Gobies), Potamodromous migrations (The cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkia, The Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Brown trout Salmo trutta), Limnodromous migrations (Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, The Whitefish Coregonus sp., Yellow Perch Perca flavescens), Oceanodromous migrations (Atlantic Herring Clupea harengus, Atlantic Cod Gadus sp., The Mackerels, The Tunas, The Plaice).
Behavioural responses during migration (Imprinting, Spatial learning), Environmental factors (Temperature, Discharge, Photoperiodic cues, Lunar cycle, Salinity Tolerance), Energetics of migration, Methods of studying migration (Marking methods, Conventional Tagging methods, Electronic Tag technology – a wireless fish network, Miscellaneous methods), Marking and recapture, Anthropogenic impacts on migration (Dam and their impact on fish migration), Barrier overcoming facilities (Fish ladder, Fish passage, Fishway, Fish locks, Fish lifts, Trapping and transportation), Impact of toxicants, Impact of climate change.

15. FISH PATHOLOGY

Nutritional disorders (Protein / amino acid deficiency disorders, Carbohydrate deficiency disorders, Lipid deficiency disorders, Vitamin deficiency disorders, Mineral deficiency disorders), Environmental diseases / disorders.
Pathogen or Parasite-afflicted disorders / diseases:
Viral diseases – Channel catfish viral disease (CCVD), The Carp Pox (CP), Epizootic Erytropoietic Necrosis (EHN), Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN), Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS).

Bacterial diseases: Bacterial Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (BHS), Furunculosis, Fin Rot, Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (Red spot disease), Vibriosis, Edwardsiellosis, Enteric Septicaemia of catfish (Hole in the head disease), Enteric red mouth disease, Columnaris disease, Bacterial coldwater disease, Bacterial gill disease (BGD), Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), Mycobacteriosis (Fish Tuberculosis), Marine Nocardiosis, Streptococcosis, Epitheliocystis.
Fungal diseases : Saprolegniasis or dermal mycoses, Branchiomycosis (‘Gill Rot’ ), Ichthyosporidiosis.

Protozoan Diseases: Flagellate disorders (Oodiniasis or Velvet disease, Costiasis or blue slime disease, Haemoflagellates, Hexamitiasis or Octomitosis), Sporozoan disorders (Coccidiosis), Cnidosporan disorders (Myxosporidiosis or Blister disease, Proliferative gill disease, Whirling Disease, Microsporiodiosis), Ciliate disorders (Ichthyophthiriasis, Chilodonella disease, Tetrahymena disease, Trichodiniasis,, Apiosoma disease).

Trematodes (Monogena and Digena), Cestodes, Nematodes, Acanthocephalan Parasites, Annelid parasites, Crustacean Parasites . Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS).

16. IMMUNE SYSTEM

Fundamental aspects (Components of the immune system, Types of immunity).
Fish immunology : Developmental aspects, Lymphoid organs, Non-specific (innate) immune system in fishes (Cellular defences, Humoral defences), Specific (adaptive) immune system in fishes (Cellular Defences, Humoral Defences), Modulators of the immune system (Nucleotides, Glucans, Probiotics), Factors affecting the immune response (Stress, Hormones, Sexual maturation and breeding, Metamorphosis / transformation effects, Environmental factors), Fish vaccination and aquaculture (Historical aspects, Types of fish vaccines, The available vaccines, Modes of vaccination); Pathogen, antigen, antobody diagnostics and aquaculture (Traditional methods, Immunological methods, Molecular methods, Modern techniques), Immunosuppression, Immunostimulation, Immunoreversal.

17. FISHERY GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

The physical basis of heredity [Chromosomes](The number of karyotyped species, Karyotype and Genome Size, Cytogenetics and fish systematic), Sex determination (Sex-determination systems, Sex differentiation control mechanisms), Phenotypes and their inheritance (Qualitative phenotypes, Quantitative phenotypes), Chromosomal manipulations (Polyploidy, Gyno – and Androgens), Sex reversal (Naturally occurring phenomenon of Sex reversal, Different approaches to Sex Reversal, Sex Reversal and Breeding), Population Genetics (The concept of ‘stock’, Gene Pool, Gene flow, Gene Frequencies and Genotypes, Inbreeding, Crossbreeding).
Fisheries Biotechnology (Biotechnology in fish breeding, Chromosome engineering, Sex control, Molecular biology, Practical applications of molecular markers in fisheries and aquaculture).

Transgenesis (Historical perspective, Transgenic fish research in India, Suitable Fish Species for Transgenic studies, Choice of target genes, Types of Transgenes, Isolation of the target gene, The gene construct, Regulatory elements, Cloning the gene of interest, Strategies for gene transfer, Stage of integration of Transgenes during embryogenesis, Integration site (s), Detection of transgenic integration and expression, Pleiotropic Effects of Transferred Genes, Concerns over transgenic fishes).

Nuclear Transplantation – Nucleocytoplasmic Hybrids (Transfer of embryonic cell nuclei to enucleated eggs / zygotes, Nuclear transfer using adult somatic cell nuclei, Stem cells and nuclear transfer), Gene Knock-out (KO) Technology (Use of pluripotent embryonic stem cells, Homologous recombination method, Use of Morpholino oligomers).
Cryopreservation of Gametes / Gene Banking (Sperm cryopreservation protocols, Spermatogonial cryopreservation and transplantation, Protocols for cryopreservation of oocytes, blastomeres and embryos),
Aquaculture Nutrition or Biotechnologically improved feed ingredients, Biotechnology and Fish health management, Microbial technology for Aquaculture, Marine Natural products.

18. FISHERY OF NON-FISH ORGANISMS

Crustacean Fishery (The capture fishery, culture fishery, products and diseases of Penaeid Shrimps, Prawns, Lobsters, Crabs), Molluscan Fishery (History, Capture fishery, Culture fishery – Mussel culture, Oyster culture, Clam culture), Pearl Oysters and Pearl culture (Culture of marine pearls, Freshwater pearl culture, Molluscan diseases), Echinoderm fishery (Fishery of Sea Cucumbers, Fishery of Sea Urchins), Chordata – Amphibia – Frog Fishery (Biology of a typical ‘Frog’, Edible species, World trade of Frog legs, The decline of Amphibians / Frogs, Frog farming), Sea Weed Culture (History, commercially important seaweeds, Commercial uses of seaweeds, World’s seaweed resources and production, Seaweed resources and production in India, Seaweed cultivation).

19. ICHTHYOTOXISM AND ICHTHYOACANTHOTOXISM [POISONOUS AND
VENOMOUS FISH AND SHELLFISH]

Poisoning (Ichthyotoxism), Evenomation (Ichthyoacanthotoxism), Poisonous fishes (Historical aspects, Distribution, The diversity of ‘poisonous’ fishes (Ichthyocrinotoxic fishes, Ichthyohepatotoxic fishes, Ichthyootoxic fishes, Ichthyohemotoxic fishes, Scombroid or Histamine poisoning, Ttetraodotoxin-poisoning, Clupeotoxic fish, Gempylotoxic fish, Ichthyoallyeinotoxic fish, Ciguatera poisoning, Haff disease or Rhabdomylosis ), General line of treatment / prevention of Fish Poisoning, Molluscan shellfish-poisoning [Paralytic shellfish toxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), Diarrhoeic shellfish toxins causing diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning (DSP), Amnesic shellfish toxins causing amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), Neurotoxic shellfish toxins causing neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), Azaspiracid shellfish toxins causing azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP)], Xiphosuran Horse-shoe or King Crab poisoning, Crustacean Shellfish-Poisoning, General line of treatment for shellfish-poisoning, Seafood Allergy, Venomous Fishes (Number of Venomous fishes, Distribution / Habitat preferences, Epidemiology, The diversity of venomous fishes and venom apparatus).

20. SPECIAL ADAPTATIONS

Electric Organs (Evolution of Electric organs / Fishes, Structure of a typical electric organ, Diversity of Electric fishes, The Electric Organ Discharge (EOD), Mechanism of production of EOD, Function of electric organs), Bioluminescence (History, Evolution, Chemistry of light production, Habitat diversity of bioluminescent fishes, Diversity of light organs in various groups of fishes, Significance of bioluminescence), Biofluorescence (Mechanism of biofluorescence production, Biofluorescence diversity in fishes, Biofluorescent regions on the body, Emission patterns, Biofluorescent compound (s), Fluorescence as a mechanism to enhance visual contrast, Significance of biofluorescence).

21. MISCELLANEOUS

Geo-Informatics – Remote Sensing (Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), The Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), Remote sensing applications relevant to river fisheries), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), GIS in India, GIS and fisheries, Indian fisheries and GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS), GPS in India, Application of GPS in aquaculture and fisheries, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), ICT in India, Applications of ICT in fisheries / aquaculture development, Fishbase, Fish Barcode, Fishery extension services (Communication in extension, Methods of extension communications, Technology generation, transfer and adoption, Fishery extension ‘lab-to-land programme’ in India, The National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Public-Private Partnership (PPP mode) in fisheries in India), Indian fishery policies, Laws / Acts / Regulations (the Indian Fisheries Act, the National Policies / Regulations / Laws, International treaties / Laws / Regulations), Welfare Schemes (Group Accident Insurance scheme, Credit facilities, Development of model fishermen villages)

APPENDIX – I ABBREVIATIONS.
APPENDIX – II SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR ASSIGNMENTS, PROJECTS and
SEMINARS.